Insights Into Nephrolithiasis From the Nurses' Health Studies.
Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) I and NHS II to understanding the role of dietary factors, beverages, body size, and urinary factors in the development of kidney stones. Methods. We conducted a review of kidney stone-related publications of NHS I and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Studies using NHS I and NHS II data have demonstrated the importance of many factors in kidney stone formation and were the first to report that higher dietary calcium was associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones in women. Data from these cohorts were instrumental in emphasizing that nephrolithiasis is a systemic disease and suggesting that a kidney stone or shared risk factors may lead to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. Findings from the NHSs have changed the scientific understanding and the clinical practice of stone prevention and have been incorporated into widely consulted textbooks and the American Urological Association Medical Management of Kidney Stones guidelines.