Isolation and identification of endogenous RFamide-related peptides 1 and 3 in the mouse hypothalamus.

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Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute

Journal Title

Journal of neuroendocrinology

MeSH Headings

Animals, Mice arginylphenylalaninamide, Neuropeptides, RFamide peptide, Hypothalamus


Although the RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) preproprotein sequence is known in mice, until now, the molecular structure of the mature, functional peptides processed from the target precursor molecule has not been determined. In the present study, we purified endogenous RFRP1 and RFRP3 peptides from mouse hypothalamic tissue extracts using an immunoaffinity column conjugated with specific antibodies against the mouse C-terminus of RFRP-1 and RFRP-3. Employing liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that RFRP1 consists of 15 amino acid residues and RFRP3 consists of 10 amino acid residues (ANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH2 and SHFPSLPQRF-NH2, respectively). To investigate the distribution of RFRPs in the mouse central nervous system, we performed immunohistochemical staining of the brain sections collected from wild-type and Rfrp knockout animals. These data, together with gene expression in multiple tissues, provide strong confidence that RFRP-immunoreactive neuronal cells are localised in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) and between the DMH and the ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. The identification of RFRP1 and RFRP3 peptides and immunohistochemical visualisation of targeting RFRPs neurones in the mice brain provide the basis for further investigations of the functional biology of RFRPs.



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