ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorder.

Document Type


Publication Date



Emergency Medicine

Journal Title

J Am Coll Radiol

MeSH Headings

Pregnancy, Female, Placenta Accreta, Humans, Cesarean Section, Ultrasonography, Prenatal


Placenta accreta spectrum disorder (PASD) is the current terminology recommended by the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) and should replace terms such as abnormally adherent/invasive placenta or morbidly adherent placenta. PASD refers to a variety of potential clinical complications, which may result from abnormal placental implantation. More specifically, placenta accreta refers to a defect in the decidua basalis where the chorionic villi adhere directly to the myometrium with trophoblastic invasion. Accurate antenatal diagnosis is needed to plan for an appropriate delivery strategy at an experienced center in order to reduce maternal and potential fetal morbidity and mortality. Obtaining radiologic and clinical data when PASD is first suspected can play a significant role in formulating an appropriate delivery strategy. Depending on the clinical risk factors and initial imaging findings, transabdominal ultrasound of the pregnant uterus with duplex Doppler and transvaginal ultrasound as needed are the most appropriate imaging procedures. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.



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