Functional analysis of monocarboxylate transporter 8 mutations in Japanese Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome patients.

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Center for Clinical & Translational Research, Maine Medical Center Research Institute

Journal Title

Endocrine journal

MeSH Headings

Adolescent, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Membrane, Child, Child, Preschool, Cytoplasm, Genetic Vectors, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, In Vitro Techniques, Infant, Japan, Loss of Function Mutation, Male, Mental Retardation, X-Linked, Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters, Muscle Hypotonia, Muscular Atrophy, Mutation, Protein Transport, Thyrotropin, Thyroxine, Transfection, Triiodothyronine, Young Adult


Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) facilitates T3 uptake into cells. Mutations in MCT8 lead to Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), which is characterized by severe psychomotor retardation and abnormal thyroid hormone profile. Nine uncharacterized MCT8 mutations in Japanese patients with severe neurocognitive impairment and elevated serum T3 levels were studied regarding the transport of T3. Human MCT8 (hMCT8) function was studied in wild-type (WT) or mutant hMCT8-transfected human placental choriocarcinoma cells (JEG3) by visualizing the locations of the proteins in the cells, detecting specific proteins, and measuring T3 uptake. We identified 6 missense (p.Arg445Ser, p.Asp498Asn, p.Gly276Arg, p.Gly196Glu, p.Gly401Arg, and p.Gly312Arg), 2 frameshift (p.Arg355Profs*64 and p.Tyr550Serfs*17), and 1 deletion (p.Pro561del) mutation(s) in the hMCT8 gene. All patients exhibited clinical characteristics of AHDS with high free T3, low-normal free T4, and normal-elevated TSH levels. All tested mutants were expressed at the protein level, except p.Arg355Profs*64 and p.Tyr550Serfs*17, which were truncated, and were inactive in T3 uptake, excluding p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants, compared with WT-hMCT8. Immunocytochemistry revealed plasma membrane localization of p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants similar with WT-hMCT8. The other mutants failed to localize in significant amount(s) in the plasma membrane and instead localized in the cytoplasm. These data indicate that p.Arg445Ser and p.Pro561del mutants preserve residual function, whereas p.Asp498Asn, p.Gly276Arg, p.Gly196Glu, p.Gly401Arg, p.Gly312Arg, p.Arg355Profs*64, and p.Tyr550Serfs*17 mutants lack function. These findings suggest that the mutations in MCT8 cause loss of function by reducing protein expression, impairing trafficking of protein to plasma membrane, and disrupting substrate channel.



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