Behavior and Quality of Life at 6 Years for Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.

Document Type


Publication Date



Surveys and Questionnaires, Quality of Life, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Child

Journal Title


MeSH Headings

Child, Child Behavior, Child Behavior Disorders, Female, Humans, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Male, Prospective Studies, Quality of Life, Surveys and Questionnaires


OBJECTIVES: We measured behavioral, quality of life (QoL), and functional status outcomes for 6-year-old children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome enrolled in the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial. We sought to compare these outcomes with those in the normative population and to analyze risk factors for worse outcomes within the single-ventricle group.

METHODS: Parent-response instruments included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) (primary outcome), Behavior Assessment System for Children 2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0, and other measures of QoL and functional status. We compared subjects with those in the normative sample using 1-sample Wilcoxon rank tests and assessed outcome predictors using multivariable regression.

RESULTS: Of 325 eligible patients, 250 (77%) participated. Compared with population norms, participants had lower scores on the Vineland-II motor skills domain (90 ± 17 vs 100 ± 15;

CONCLUSIONS: At 6 years, children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome had difficulty in areas of adaptive behavior, behavioral symptoms, QoL, and functional status. Principal risks for adverse outcomes include sociodemographic factors and measures of greater course complexity. However, models reveal less than one-third of outcome variance.