Outcomes of carotid endarterectomy in the Vascular Quality Initiative based on patch type.

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Journal Title

Journal of vascular surgery : official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter

MeSH Headings

Aged, Animals, Blood Vessel Prosthesis, Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation, Carotid Stenosis, Cattle, Endarterectomy, Carotid, Female, Humans, Male, Pericardium, Polyethylene Terephthalates, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Registries, Reoperation, Retrospective Studies


OBJECTIVE: The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) is the largest registry of vascular surgical procedures and as such is capable of distinguishing small but important differences in outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine the outcomes of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) based on patch type, including bovine pericardium, autogenous vein, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Dacron.

METHODS: All primary CEAs performed with primary repair and patching (n = 70,987) within the VQI were retrospectively analyzed. Reoperative CEA and combined CEA and coronary artery bypass were excluded. Rates of any postoperative neurologic event, return to the operating room (bleeding, neurologic event, or wound complication), and restenosis (>50% and >80%) at 1-year follow-up were primary outcomes. Rates were compared by patch type using χ

RESULTS: During the period of study, 2003 to 2017, there were 70,987 CEAs entered into the VQI registry. Bovine pericardium was the patch material with the highest frequency of use (n = 51,480), followed by Dacron (n = 12,356), vein (n = 1460), and PTFE (n = 1638). Bovine pericardium, vein, and Dacron had lower rates of postoperative neurologic events compared with PTFE or primary repair. Bovine pericardium had the lowest rate of restenosis at 1 year. By multivariate analysis, bovine pericardium (odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.89) and protamine use (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91) were associated with a lower incidence of return to the operating room. The use of Dacron, vein, and PTFE patches was not significantly different from the reference of primary closure. Multivariate analysis of postoperative neurologic events revealed that bovine pericardium (OR, 0.59; CI, 0.48-0.72) and Dacron (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.43-0.72) were associated with lower incidence of stroke or transient ischemic attack, whereas vein and PTFE were no different from primary closure. Bovine pericardium (OR, 0.57; CI, 0.44-0.75), Dacron (OR, 0.70; CI, 0.50-0.98), vein (OR, 0.72; CI, 0.53-0.98), and never smoking (OR, 0.87; CI, 0.78-0.96) were associated with a lower incidence of restenosis at 1 year by multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Bovine pericardium has superior outcomes both postoperatively and at 1 year compared with other patch materials. The large volume of patient data contained in the VQI makes it possible to compare outcomes that have small but meaningful differences.



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