Impact of perioperative acute kidney injury as a severity index for thirty-day readmission after cardiac surgery.

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The Annals of thoracic surgery

MeSH Headings

Acute Kidney Injury, Aged, Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Confidence Intervals, Coronary Artery Bypass, Female, Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation, Hospital Mortality, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Middle Aged, Odds Ratio, Patient Readmission, Perioperative Care, Postoperative Complications, Predictive Value of Tests, Registries, Retrospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Severity of Illness Index, Survival Rate, Time Factors, United Kingdom


BACKGROUND: Of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the United States, 15% to 20% are re-hospitalized within 30 days. Current models to predict readmission have not evaluated the association between severity of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day readmissions.

METHODS: We collected data from 2,209 consecutive patients who underwent either coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at 7 member hospitals of the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry between July 2008 and December 2010. Administrative data at each hospital were searched to identify all patients readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days of discharge. We defined AKI stages by the AKI Network definition of 0.3 or 50% increase (stage 1), twofold increase (stage 2), and a threefold or 0.5 increase if the baseline serum creatinine was at least 4.0 (mg/dL) or new dialysis (stage 3). We evaluate the association between stages of AKI and 30-day readmission using multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS: There were 260 patients readmitted within 30 days (12.1%). The median time to readmission was 9 (interquartile range, 4 to 16) days. Patients not developing AKI after cardiac surgery had a 30-day readmission rate of 9.3% compared with patients developing AKI stage 1 (16.1%), AKI stage 2 (21.8%), and AKI stage 3 (28.6%, p < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for AKI stage 1 (1.81; 1.35, 2.44), stage 2 (2.39; 1.38, 4.14), and stage 3 (3.47; 1.85 to 6.50). Models to predict readmission were significantly improved with the addition of AKI stage (c-statistic 0.65, p = 0.001) and net reclassification rate of 14.6% (95% confidence interval: 5.05% to 24.14%, p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to more traditional patient characteristics, the severity of postoperative AKI should be used when assessing a patient's risk for readmission.



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