Update on pediatric perfusion practice in North America: 2005 survey.

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Journal Title

The Journal of extra-corporeal technology

MeSH Headings

Adult, Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Child, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Health Care Surveys, Hemofiltration, Humans, North America, Perfusion, Postoperative Care


The devices and techniques used for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) undergo continuous change. New techniques and clinical comparisons of devices are frequently reported in the literature; however, information about the extent to which these techniques and devices are adopted into clinical practice at pediatric heart centers are not well described. We conducted a mail survey of North American pediatric cardiac surgery centers to gain perspective on the extent to which various devices and techniques were used for CPB along with program demographic data. In January 2005, surveys were mailed to 180 North American open heart centers. The survey was nearly identical in format and content to three earlier surveys completed in 1989, 1994, and 1999, with the exception that new questions were added to address new techniques and devices that have emerged over the years. Responses were received from 76 hospitals, for an overall response rate of 42%. Of the responding centers, 53 were performing pediatric open heart surgery and 23 were not. Twenty centers performed only pediatric open heart surgery, and 33 performed both pediatric and adult open heart surgery. The mean pediatric annual caseload of responding centers was 195 procedures/yr (range, 20-650 procedures/yr; median, 154 procedures/yr). A total of 9943 pediatric open heart procedures were performed at responding centers in 2004. Most of the centers surveyed reported use of an open venous reservoir system (88%), use of roller pumps (90%), and use of arterial line filtration (98%). Most centers used circuits that have surface treatments with heparin or some other surface-modifying agent (74%). There has been an increase in the use of all types of safety devices. Modified ultrafiltration is used at 75% of the centers surveyed. Centers reported an increase in the availability of all types of cardiac support devices including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for postcardiotomy cardiac support (90%). This survey provides an overview of clinical practice in 2004. The series of surveys document the historical progression of clinical practice over the past 16 years. Practice surveys may also be useful for identifying gaps between evidence-based knowledge and clinical practice. These surveys document the diffusion of innovation related to CPB during the past 16 years and areas of variation in practice that need further study.



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