Management of Post-transplant Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Disease.

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MeSH Headings

Kidney Transplantation; Transplant Recipients; Postoperative Complications Therapy; Hyperparathyroidism Therapy; Bone Diseases Therapy; Parathyroid Glands Surgery; Allografts; Vitamin D Therapeutic Use; Hormone Antagonists Therapeutic Use; Vitamin D Adverse Effects; Hypocalcemia; Hypercalcemia; Bone Diseases; Surgery, Endocrine; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic Therapy; Kidney Failure, Chronic Therapy; Immunosuppression


Significant advances in immunosuppressive therapies have been made in renal transplantation, leading to increased allograft and patient survival. Despite improvement in overall patient survival, patients continue to require management of persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism. Medications that treat persistent hyperparathyroidism include vitamin D, vitamin D analogues, and calcimimetics. Medication side effects such as hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia, and adynamic bone disease, may lead to a decrease in the drugs. When medical management fails to control persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism, treatment is a parathyroidectomy. Surgical techniques are not uniform between centers and surgeons. Undergoing the surgery may include a subtotal technique or a technique including total parathyroid gland resection with partial heterotopic gland reimplantation. In addition, there are possible post-surgical complications. The ideal treatment for persistent post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is the treatment and prevention of the condition while patients are being managed for their late-stage chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

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