Maternal opioid use disorder at delivery hospitalization in a rural state: Maine, 2009-2018.

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MaineHealth Institute for Research, Pediatrics

Journal Title

Public health

MeSH Headings

Pregnancy, Maine, Opioid-Related Disorders, Rural Population, Pregnancy Complications, Reproductive History, Hospitalization


OBJECTIVES: A multistate analysis found Maine had the second highest average annual increase in maternal opioid use disorder (OUD) at delivery hospitalization during 1999-2012. The objective of our analysis was to estimate the prevalence, maternal characteristics, and geographic distribution of OUD at delivery hospitalization in Maine using recent state-level data.

STUDY DESIGN: Serially collected cross-sectional population-based data.

METHODS: We used diagnosis and procedure codes to identify deliveries among hospital discharges in Maine, 2009-2018 (n = 120,764), and to categorize deliveries according to the prevalence of maternal OUD and selected conditions. We assessed linear trends in OUD at delivery and calculated prevalence ratios (PR) for co-occurring maternal conditions.

RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal OUD per 1000 deliveries in Maine increased from 22.7 in 2009 to 34.9 in 2018 (linear trend P value < 0.01), with a mean annual increase of 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9 to 2.4). The following conditions were more prevalent among women with OUD at delivery: hepatitis C, PR = 45.8 (95% CI: 38.8 to 54.2); other drug abuse or dependence, PR = 16.8 (13.4 to 20.9); alcohol abuse and dependence, PR = 8.5 (5.8 to 12.5); nicotine use, PR = 6.0 (5.9 to 6.2); cannabis use, PR = 5.2 (4.6 to 5.9); anxiety, PR = 2.7 (2.5 to 3.2); and depression, PR = 2.7 (2.4 to 3.1). Women with OUD at delivery were also more likely to reside in small rural areas (27.3% vs 22.5%) and deliver in a hospital with a level III nursery (50.6% vs 34.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: Maternal OUD now accounts for 1 in 29 deliveries in Maine and commonly occurs with other medical conditions. Prevention and treatment of OUD among reproductive age women in Maine remains needed.



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