Effect of adjunct femoral endarterectomy in lower extremity bypass on perioperative and 1-year outcomes.

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Journal of vascular surgery

MeSH Headings

Aged, Blood Loss, Surgical, Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation, Chi-Square Distribution, Endarterectomy, Female, Femoral Artery, Humans, Intermittent Claudication, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Logistic Models, Lower Extremity, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, New England, Odds Ratio, Operative Time, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Postoperative Complications, Proportional Hazards Models, Registries, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Veins


BACKGROUND: Isolated common femoral endarterectomy was recently reported to have a 30-day mortality of 3.4%. The effect of adjunctive femoral endarterectomy at the time of lower extremity bypass is not well described, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine its associated perioperative and long-term risk.

METHODS: Vascular Study Group of New England registry data were used to identify patients undergoing initial lower extremity bypass from 2003 to 2015. After univariate analysis, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the independent association of endarterectomy with adverse perioperative events. Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard models were used for the 1-year analysis.

RESULTS: After exclusions, 4496 patients were identified as undergoing infrainguinal bypass (33% with endarterectomy). There was no difference in the proportion with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLI; 68% vs 67%; P = .24) or tissue loss of those with CLI (65% vs 63%; P = .34) between the adjunctive endarterectomy group and bypass alone, respectively. Patients undergoing adjunctive endarterectomy were older (mean 68 years vs 67 years; P = .02), more likely white (95% vs 93%; P = .02), smokers (91% vs 87%; P = .001), and more often had prior coronary artery bypass grafting/percutaneous coronary intervention (34% vs 31%; P = .02). The endarterectomy cohort had similar 30-day mortality (CLI: 2.6% vs 2.9%; P = .60; claudication: 0.2% vs 0.4%; P = 1.0) despite a longer operative time (median, 268 minutes vs 210 minutes; P < .001) and increased blood loss (median, 250 mL vs 180 mL; P < .001). Patients with CLI undergoing adjunctive endarterectomy had more in-hospital myocardial infarctions (MIs; 6.2% vs 3.8%; P = .003) and transfusions (11% vs 6.8%; P < .001). At 1-year, this group had a suggestion of improved freedom from major amputation (91% vs 87%; P = .049) and amputation-free survival (80% vs 76%; P = .03) that did not reach significance after adjustment. For patients with claudication and adjunctive endarterectomy, rates of MI (2.4% vs 0.9%; P = .02), renal dysfunction (3.6% vs 1.4%; P = .01), surgical site infection (SSI; 5.0% vs 2.6%; P = .02), and transfusion (4.6% vs 1.8%; P = .002) were higher. After adjustment, all patients undergoing adjunctive endarterectomy were at increased risk of MI (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2), SSI (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0), and bleeding requiring transfusion (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3). There were no differences in 1-year survival for CLI or claudication groups and no difference in all 1-year end points for patients with claudication.

CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive femoral endarterectomy with bypass is safe, with no difference in perioperative or 1-year mortality compared with bypass. However, surgeons should be aware that adjunctive endarterectomy is associated with an increased risk of bleeding, SSI, and MI, likely from these patients' disease burden and presumed more extensive atherosclerosis.




Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Maine Medical Partners Surgical Care, Portland ME.

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