Complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms remain high compared with elective repair
Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Journal of vascular surgery
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic (diagnostic imaging, mortality, surgery); Aortic Rupture (diagnostic imaging, mortality, surgery); Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation (adverse effects, mortality); Endovascular Procedures (adverse effects, mortality); Female; Humans; Male; North America; Postoperative Complications (diagnosis, etiology, mortality); Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with increased perioperative mortality and morbidity compared with intact repair. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the factors associated with the presentation of ruptured aneurysms and adverse outcomes after repair. METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registry was queried (2010-2020) to identify patients who had undergone TEVAR for ruptured and intact thoracic aortic aneurysms. The primary outcome was to identify the factors associated with ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms. The secondary outcomes included perioperative mortality and morbidity, 5-year survival, and the identification of factors associated with adverse outcomes after TEVAR. RESULTS: Of the 3039 patients identified with a thoracic aortic aneurysm, 2806 (92%) had undergone repair for an intact aneurysm and 233 (8%) had undergone repair for a ruptured aneurysm. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a greater odds of a presentation with a ruptured aneurysm (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.9; P < .001). The factors associated with a lower odds of rupture included prior aortic aneurysm repair (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.49-0.97; P = .05), prior smoker (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P < .001), preoperative beta-blocker therapy (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001), and preoperative statin therapy (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.94; P = .020). TEVAR for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms was associated with higher perioperative mortality (rupture vs intact, 27% vs 4.6%; OR, 6.6; 95% CI 4.3-10; P < .001) and the composite outcome of mortality, new dialysis, paralysis, and stroke (38% vs 9.5%; OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.5-7.4; P < .001). The 5-year survival was significantly lower after TEVAR for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms (50% vs 76%; P < .001; hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.29-0.52; P < .001). Preoperative statin therapy was associated with higher 5-year survival (hazard ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6; P = .021). CONCLUSIONS: TEVAR for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms results in increased perioperative mortality and morbidity and lower 5-year survival compared with TEVAR for intact aneurysms. Patients with prior aortic aneurysm repair, prior smoking, and preoperative beta-blocker or statin therapy were less likely to present with ruptured thoracic aneurysms. This correlation might be attributed to increased exposure to cardiovascular healthcare providers and, thus, subsequently increased screening and surveillance, allowing for elective repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms.
Patel PB, Marcaccio CL, de Guerre LEVM, et al. Complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms remain high compared with elective repair. J Vasc Surg. 2022;75(3):842-850. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2021.09.047