In-hospital and one-year outcomes are similar for women and men following transcarotid artery revascularization in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

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Journal of Vascular Surgery

MeSH Headings

Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Canada (epidemiology); Carotid Stenosis (complications, surgery); Endarterectomy, Carotid; Endovascular Procedures (methods); Female; Follow-Up Studies; Hospital Mortality (trends); Humans; Incidence; Male; Quality Indicators, Health Care; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Stents; Stroke (epidemiology, etiology, prevention & control); Survival Rate (trends); Time Factors; United States (epidemiology)


OBJECTIVE: In randomized controlled trials and retrospective series, women have higher rates of periprocedural stroke and death following carotid endarterectomy and transfemoral carotid artery stenting compared with men. We sought to compare outcomes by sex following transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) among patients in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). METHODS: We reviewed all patients in the VQI who underwent TCAR from 2017 to 2020. We stratified the analysis by symptom status. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke/death, and secondary outcomes were in-hospital stroke and death and 1-year stroke/death, stroke, and death. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression models to assess the association of sex with in-hospital and 1-year outcomes after adjusting for preoperative and intraoperative characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 15,851 patients who underwent TCAR, of whom 7391 (47%) were symptomatic (2708 or 37% female) and 8460 (53%) were asymptomatic (3097 or 37% female). Women were less frequently considered anatomic high risk than men in both groups (symptomatic: 43% vs 46%; P = .004; asymptomatic: 44% vs 48%; P = .004). Among symptomatic patients, women more often had severe ≥70% stenosis (89% vs 87%; P = .02). There were no differences in in-hospital death, stroke, or stroke/death for women vs men following TCAR among symptomatic or asymptomatic patients (all P > .05). After adjusting for baseline differences between groups, female sex was not associated with in-hospital stroke/death in either symptomatic (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.56) or asymptomatic (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.63) patients undergoing TCAR. There were also no differences in 1-year stroke, death, or stroke/death risk for women compared with men with and without symptoms on unadjusted or adjusted analyses (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: We found no sex differences in in-hospital or 1-year stroke/death following TCAR, regardless of symptom status. TCAR appears to be as safe of a surgical procedure for women as for men in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease.

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