Management of rhabdomyolysis: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

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American journal of surgery

MeSH Headings

Acute Kidney Injury (etiology, therapy); Bicarbonates; Humans; Mannitol (therapeutic use); Practice Management; Retrospective Studies; Rhabdomyolysis (complications, therapy)


BACKGROUND: The treatment of rhabdomyolysis remains controversial. Although there is no question that any associated compartment syndrome needs to be identified and released, debate persists regarding the benefit of further therapy including aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation (IVFR), urine alkalization with bicarbonate, and the use of mannitol. The goal of this practice management guideline was to evaluate the effects of bicarbonate, mannitol, and aggressive intravenous fluids on patients with rhabdomyolysis. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing treatments in patients with rhabdomyolysis was performed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was applied to assess the quality of evidence and to create evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of bicarbonate, mannitol, and aggressive IVFR in patients with rhabdomyolysis. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were identified for analysis. On quantitative analysis, IVFR decreased the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and need for dialysis in patients with rhabdomyolysis. Neither bicarbonate nor mannitol administration improved the incidence of acute renal failure and need for dialysis in patients with rhabdomyolysis. Quality of evidence was deemed to be very low, with the vast majority of the literature being retrospective studies. CONCLUSION: In patients with rhabdomyolysis, we conditionally recommend for aggressive IVFR to improve outcomes of ARF and lessen the need for dialysis. We conditionally recommend against treatment with bicarbonate or mannitol in patients with rhabdomyolysis.

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