Simulation-Based Outreach Program Improves Rural Hospitals' Team Confidence in Neonatal Resuscitation

Document Type


Publication Date



Emergency Medicine, Pediatrics

Journal Title



INTRODUCTION: Neonatal resuscitation is a high acuity, low occurrence event (HALO), and in rural community hospitals, low birth rates prevent providers from regular opportunities to maintain essential resuscitation skills. Simulation is an effective training modality for medical education, although resources for simulation are often limited in rural hospitals. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that in situ neonatal resuscitation simulation training improves rural hospitals' delivery room team confidence in performing key Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) skills. Our secondary objective was to compare confidence to performance as measured by adherence to NRP® guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-training survey and post-training survey of delivery room team confidence in NRP skills at five level one delivery hospitals before and after an in situ simulation training program. Participants included rural hospitals' usual delivery room team members. Participants rated their confidence on a five-point Likert scale. Simulations were analyzed using an adapted version of a validated scoring tool for NRP adherence and presented as overall percentage scores. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate a significant improvement in self-assessed confidence levels pre- and post-simulation training in key areas of neonatal resuscitation. Participants reported higher confidence in airway management (4 vs. 3, p=0.003), emergency intravenous access (3 vs. 2, p=0.007), and the ability to manage a code in the delivery room (4 vs. 3, p=0.013) and the operating room (4 vs. 3, p=0.028). Improvements were also noted in their team member's knowledge and skills to perform neonatal resuscitation. While improvements were appreciated in confidence, the performance of skills (NRP adherence scores) was often in the sub-optimal performance range. CONCLUSIONS: An in situ-based neonatal resuscitation outreach simulation program improves self-confidence among rural delivery room teams. Additional research is needed to understand how to translate improved confidence into actual improved performance.



First Page