Outcomes after ultramassive transfusion in the modern era: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter study
Zachary A. Matthay, From the Department of Surgery at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco (Z.A.M., Z.J.H., R.A.C., B.N.-G., L.Z.K., E.E.R., J.J.P., B.R., M.K.A., A.T.F.), San Francisco, California; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco (E.C.M), San Francisco, California; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (J.H.E., A.N., J.M.), San Francisco, California; Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (W.D., J.N.), Irvine, Orange, California; Department of Surgery, Ohio Health Grant Medical Center (A.K.L., M.C.S.), Columbus, Ohio; Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky (S.S.D., J.K.R.), Lexington, Kentucky; Department of Surgery, Miami Valley Hospital (H.L., Y.W., C.H.), Dayton, Ohio; Department of Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (A.M.C., R.A.K., P.T.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Surgery, Loma Linda Medical Center (L.P., K.M., X.L.-O.), Loma Linda, California; Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center (K.T., C.A.G.), Kansas City, Kansas; Department of Surgery, Crozer-Chester Medical Center (S.S.S., A.R.), Upland, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, WakeMed Health and Hospitals (A.M., P.U., A.S., B.P., K.T.), Raleigh, North Carolina; Department of Surgery, University of New Mexico School of Medicine (K.M., S.A.M.), Albuquerque, New Mexico; Department of Surgery, Wellspan York Hospital (J.G.), York, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, Ascension Via Christi Hospitals St. Francis (J.K., J.H., K.L.), Wichita, Kansas; Department of Surgery, Maine Medical Center (J.B.O., D.C.C.), Portland, Maine; Department of Surgery, South Shore Hospital/Brigham and Women's Hospital (S.A.S., J.C.K.), Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (J.G., J.P.H.), Hershey, Pennsylvania; Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (A.Z.B., J.A.P.), Chicago, Illinois; Department of Surgery, University of California (R.A.C.), UC Davis, Sacramento, California; Department of Surgery, Ryder Trauma Center (K.A.J., G.R.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; and Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis (J.K.), Missouri.
BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Multivariable logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analysis were used to identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. RESULTS: The 461 patients were young (median age, 35 years), male (82%), severely injured (median Injury Severity Score, 33), in shock (median shock index, 1.2; base excess, -9), and transfused a median of 29 U of RBCs, 22 U of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 24 U of platelets (PLT). Mortality was 46% at 24 hours and 65% at discharge. Transfusion of RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 or RBC/PLT ≥1.5:1 was significantly associated with mortality, most pronounced for the 18% of patients who received both RBC/PLT and RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 (odds ratios, 3.11 and 2.81 for mortality at 24 hours and discharge; both p < 0.01). Classification and Regression Tree identified that age older than 50 years, low initial Glasgow Coma Scale, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy were associated with low likelihood of survival (14-26%), while absence of these factors was associated with the highest survival (71%). CONCLUSION: Despite modern massive transfusion protocols, one half of trauma patients receiving UMT are transfused with either RBC/FFP or RBC/PLT in unbalanced ratios ≥1.5:1, with increased associated mortality. Maintaining focus on balanced ratios during UMT is critical, and consideration of advanced age, poor initial mental status, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy can aid in prognostication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.