Lymph node metastases in paediatric and young adult patients with non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS): Findings from Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ARST0332

Elysia Alvarez, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:
Jiayi He, Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Sheri L. Spunt, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
Andrea Hayes-Jordan, Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, USA.
Simon C. Kao, Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.


PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to better define the clinical features and outcomes of young patients with non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) with regional and distant lymph node (LN) metastases treated in a standardised fashion, we analysed LN involvement in COG study ARST0332, which evaluated a risk-based treatment strategy for young patients with all stages of NRSTS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients <30 years old with newly diagnosed NRSTS and LN metastases enrolled on ARST0332 were studied. Regional LN sampling was required for those with epithelioid>sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma or clinically/radiographically enlarged LNs. Tumour features and extent of pre-enrolment resection determined treatment, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and delayed surgery. Recommendations for LN metastases included LN dissection at the time of primary tumour resection and dose-adapted radiotherapy based on extent of LN resection. RESULTS: Twenty of 529 eligible and evaluable ARST0332 patients with NRSTS had LN metastases; epithelioid sarcoma had the highest incidence (18%, 5 of 28). Pre-treatment imaging identified LN enlargement in 19 of 20 patients; 1 had no pre-treatment LN imaging. At 6.9 years median follow-up for surviving patients, 5-year overall survival was 85.7% (95% CI: 33.4%, 97.9%) for seven patients with isolated LN metastases and 15.4% (95% CI: 2.5%, 38.8%) for 13 patients with additional extranodal metastases. LN recurrence occurred in only one patient without LNs sampled at initial diagnosis. CONCLUSION: LN metastases occur in about 4% of paediatric/young adult NRSTS, are limited to a few histologic subtypes, and are rare in patients who did not have clinical or imaging evidence of lymphadenopathy, suggesting that biopsies of non-enlarged LNs are not necessary to identify occult involvement. Patients with isolated LN metastases have high 5-year overall survival (∼85%) and should be treated with curative intent. GOV REGISTRY NO: NCT00346164.