Risk factors and impact of postoperative hypotension after carotid artery stenting in the Vascular Quality Initiative
OBJECTIVE: Hypotension is a frequent complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS). Although common, its occurrence is unpredictable, and association with adverse events has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of postoperative hypotension after CAS and the association with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), increased length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all CAS procedures, including transfemoral CAS (TF-CAS) and transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR), performed in the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2018. The primary study end point was postoperative hypotension, defined as hypotension treated with continuous infusion of a vasoactive agent for ≥15 minutes. Secondary end points included any postoperative neurologic events (stroke/TIA), MACEs (myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and dysrhythmias), prolonged LOS (>1 day), and in-hospital mortality. Patients' demographics predictive of hypotension were determined by multivariable logistic regression, and a risk score was developed for correlation with outcomes. RESULTS: During the time period of study, 24,699 patients underwent CAS; 19,716 (80%) were TF-CAS, 3879 (16%) were TCAR, and 1104 (4%) were not defined. Fifty-six percent were for symptomatic disease, 75% were for a primary atherosclerotic lesion, and 72% were performed under local or regional anesthesia. Postoperative hypotension occurred in 15% of TF-CAS and 14% of TCAR patients (P = .50). Patients with hypotension (vs no hypotension) had higher rates of stroke/TIA (7.3% vs 2.6%; P < .001), MACEs (9.6% vs 2.1%; P < .001), prolonged LOS (65% vs 28%; P < .001), and in-hospital mortality (2.9% vs 0.7%; P < .001). By multivariable analysis, risk factors associated with hypotension included an atherosclerotic (vs restenotic) lesion (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-2.4; P < .001), female sex (1.3 [1.2-1.4]; P < .001), positive stress test result (1.3 [1.2-1.4]; P < .001), age 70 to 79 years (1.1 [1.1-1.3]; P < .002), age >80 years (1.2 [1.1-1.4]; P < .001), history of myocardial infarction or angina (1.3 [1.2-1.4]; P < .001), and an urgent (vs elective) procedure (1.1 [1.0-1.2]; P < .01). A history of hypertension was protective (0.9 [0.8-0.9]; P < .02). A normalized risk score for hypotension was created from the multivariable model. Increasing risk scores correlated directly with rates of adverse events, including postoperative stroke/TIA, MACEs, increased LOS, and increased in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension after CAS is associated with adverse neurologic and cardiac events as well as with prolonged LOS and in-hospital mortality. A scoring tool may be valuable in stratifying patients at risk. Interventions aimed at preventing postoperative hypotension may improve outcomes with CAS.