Multiple Myeloma Cells Alter Adipogenesis, Increase Senescence-Related and Inflammatory Gene Transcript Expression, and Alter Metabolism in Preadipocytes
Within the bone marrow microenvironment, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an essential precursor to bone marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts. The balance between this progenitor pool and mature cells (adipocytes and osteoblasts) is often skewed by disease and aging. In multiple myeloma (MM), a cancer of the plasma cell that predominantly grows within the bone marrow, as well as other cancers, MSCs, preadipocytes, and adipocytes have been shown to directly support tumor cell survival and proliferation. Increasing evidence supports the idea that MM-associated MSCs are distinct from healthy MSCs, and their gene expression profiles may be predictive of myeloma patient outcomes. Here we directly investigate how MM cells affect the differentiation capacity and gene expression profiles of preadipocytes and bone marrow MSCs. Our studies reveal that MM.1S cells cause a marked decrease in lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Also, MM.1S cells or MM.1S-conditioned media altered gene expression profiles of both 3T3-L1 and mouse bone marrow MSCs. 3T3-L1 cells exposed to MM.1S cells before adipogenic differentiation displayed gene expression changes leading to significantly altered pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis, the cell cycle, and metabolism (oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis) after adipogenesis. MM.1S cells induced a marked increase in 3T3-L1 expression of MM-supportive genes including and (SDF1), which was confirmed in mouse MSCs by qRT-PCR, suggesting a forward-feedback mechanism. experiments revealed that indirect MM exposure prior to differentiation drives a senescent-like phenotype in differentiating MSCs, and this trend was confirmed in MM-associated MSCs compared to MSCs from normal donors. In direct co-culture, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) exposed to MM.1S, RPMI-8226, and OPM-2 prior to and during differentiation, exhibited different levels of lipid accumulation as well as secreted cytokines. Combined, our results suggest that MM cells can inhibit adipogenic differentiation while stimulating expression of the senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and other pro-myeloma molecules. This study provides insight into a novel way in which MM cells manipulate their microenvironment by altering the expression of supportive cytokines and skewing the cellular diversity of the marrow.