Obesity and myeloma: Clinical and mechanistic contributions to disease progression

Document Type


Publication Date



Endocrinology & Diabetes

Journal Title

Frontiers in Endocrinology

MeSH Headings

Humans; Multiple Myeloma (complications, pathology); Obesity (complications); Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (complications, pathology); Bone Marrow (pathology); Disease Progression; Tumor Microenvironment


Obesity and obesogenic behaviors are positively associated with both monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). As the only known modifiable risk factor, this association has emerged as a new potential target for MM prevention, but little is known about the mechanistic relationship of body weight with MM progression. Here we summarize epidemiological correlations between weight, body composition, and the various stages of myeloma disease progression and treatments, as well as the current understanding of the molecular contributions of obesity-induced changes in myeloma cell phenotype and signaling. Finally, we outline groundwork for the future characterization of the relationship between body weight patterns, the bone marrow microenvironment, and MM pathogenesis in animal models, which have the potential to impact our understanding of disease pathogenesis and inform MM prevention messages.



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