Diagnosis and management of granuloma annulare
American family physician
Dermatologic Agents (therapeutic use); Diagnosis, Differential; Granuloma Annulare (classification, diagnosis, therapy); Humans
Granuloma annulare is a benign, asymptomatic, self-limited papular eruption found in patients of all ages. The primary skin lesion usually is grouped papules in an enlarging annular shape, with color ranging from flesh-colored to erythematous. The two most common types of granuloma annulare are localized, which typically is found on the lateral or dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet; and disseminated, which is widespread. Localized disease generally is self-limited and resolves within one to two years, whereas disseminated disease lasts longer. Because localized granuloma annulare is self-limited, no treatment other than reassurance may be necessary. There are no well-designed randomized controlled trials of the treatment of granuloma annulare. Treatment recommendations are based on the pathophysiology of the disease, expert opinion, and case reports only. Liquid nitrogen, injected steroids, or topical steroids under occlusion have been recommended for treatment of localized disease. Disseminated granuloma annulare may be treated with one of several systemic therapies such as dapsone, retinoids, niacinamide, antimalarials, psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy, fumaric acid esters, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus. Consultation with a dermatologist is recommended because of the possible toxicities of these agents.
Cyr PR. Diagnosis and management of granuloma annulare. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(10):1729-1734.