Investigating infectious outcomes in adult patients undergoing solid organ transplantation: A retrospective single-center experience, Paris, France

Document Type


Publication Date



Infection Control

Journal Title

PloS one

MeSH Headings

Male; Humans; Adult; Middle Aged; Female; Paris; Retrospective Studies; Organ Transplantation (adverse effects); Bacterial Infections (drug therapy); Anti-Bacterial Agents (therapeutic use); Urinary Tract Infections (drug therapy)


OBJECTIVES: This study described the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients who were admitted to our center for infection. It also determined factors associated with a poor outcome, and compares early and late period infections. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, conducted at a tertiary care center in France between October 2017 and March 2019, infectious outcomes of patients with solid organ transplant where studied. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included with 158 hospitalizations for infection. Among these 104 patients, 71 (68%) were men. The median age was 59 years old. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (66%) and chills (31%). Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common diagnosis (71/158 hospitalizations). Urinary tract infections were frequently seen in kidney transplant recipients (25/60 hospitalizations). One or more infectious agents were isolated for 113 hospitalizations (72%): 70 bacteria, 36 viruses and 10 fungi, with predominance of gram-negative bacilli (53 cases) of which 13 were multidrug-resistant. The most frequently used antibiotics were third generation cephalosporins (40 cases), followed by piperacillin-tazobactam (26 cases). We note that 25 infections (16%) occurred during the first 6 months (early post-transplant period). Patients admitted during the early post-transplant period were more often on immunosuppressive treatment with prednisone (25/25 VS 106/133) (p = 0.01), mycophenolic acid (22/25 VS 86/133) (p = 0.03), presented for an urinary tract infection (10/25 VS 25/133) (p = 0.04) or a bacterial infection (17/25 VS 53/133) (p = 0.01). Patients with later infection had more comorbidities (57/83 VS 9/21) (p = 0.03), cancer (19/83 VS 0/21) (p = 0.04) or were on treatment with everolimus (46/133 VS 0/25) (p = 0.001). During 31 hospitalizations (20%), patients presented with a serious infection requiring intensive care (n = 26; 16%) or leading to death (n = 7; 4%). Bacteremia, pulmonary and cardiac complications were the main risk factors associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: Infections pose a significant challenge in the care of solid organ transplant patients, particularly those with comorbidities and intensive immunosuppression. This underscores the crucial importance of continuous surveillance and epidemiologic monitoring within this patient population.


Rami Waked- Resident

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