Effect of six month's treatment with omega-3 acid ethyl esters on long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction: The OMEGA-REMODEL randomized clinical trial

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International journal of cardiology


BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3-FA) have been shown to reduce inflammation and adverse cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact of O3-FA on long-term clinical outcomes remains uncertain. AIMS: To investigate the impact of O3-FA on adverse cardiac events in long-term follow up post AMI in a pilot-study. METHODS: Consecutive patients with AMI were randomized 1:1 to receive 6 months of O3-FA (4 g/daily) or placebo in the prospective, multicenter OMEGA-REMODEL trial. Primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) encompassing all-cause death, heart failure hospitalizations, recurrent acute coronary syndrome, and late coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). RESULTS: A total of 358 patients (62.8% male; 48.1 ± 16.1 years) were followed for a median of 6.6 (IQR: 5.0-9.1) years. Among those receiving O3-FA (n = 180), MACE occurred in 65 (36.1%) compared to 62 (34.8%) of 178 assigned to placebo. By intention-to-treat analysis, O3-FA treatment assignment did not reduce MACE (HR = 1.014; 95%CI = 0.716-1.436; p = 0.938), or its individual components. However, patients with a positive response to O3-FA treatment (n = 43), defined as an increase in the red blood cell omega-3 index (O3I) ≥5% after 6 months of treatment, had lower annualized MACE rates compared to those without (2.9% (95%CI = 1.2-5.1) vs 7.1% (95%CI = 5.7-8.9); p = 0.001). This treatment benefit persisted after adjustment for baseline characteristics (HR = 0.460; 95%CI = 0.218-0.970; p = 0.041). CONCLUSION: In long-term follow-up of the OMEGA-REMODEL randomized trial, O3-FA did not reduce MACE after AMI by intention to treat principle, however, patients who achieved a ≥ 5% increase of O3I subsequent to treatment had favorable outcomes.

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