An evaluation of the opportunities for collaborative practice occurring in and the impact of interprofessional education on advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

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Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning.

MeSH Headings

Cooperative Behavior, Education, Pharmacy, Group Processes, Humans, Interdisciplinary Communication, Professional Role, Program Evaluation, Self Efficacy, Students, Pharmacy, Surveys and Questionnaires, Time Factors


BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of interprofessional (IP) education (IPE) programs during the first three years of a four-year doctor of pharmacy program on student preparedness and ability to function as a collaborative team member and to garner student feedback on collaboration experienced during the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs).

INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITY: Likert scale based statements and open-ended questions were added to the student course evaluations for the APPEs for two graduating classes of students. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS (repeated measures ANOVA and MANOVA). Thematic analysis by three reviewers reaching consensus was used to evaluate the qualitative data. Students reported being well prepared for IP collaboration (average ratings ranged from a mean of 3.37-3.46 on a scale of 1-4; 1=not at all prepared and 4=very well prepared). On average, students spent 26-50% of their time working with colleagues from other healthcare professions. In describing their preparedness for IP collaboration, the IP core competency of teams/teamwork was addressed in 50% of the submitted responses. The competencies of values/ethics, roles/responsibilities and IP communication were addressed by 2%, 20% and 28% of the written responses, respectively.

DISCUSSION: Required longitudinal IP programs in the first three years of the pharmacy curriculum contribute to the students' perceived preparedness for collaborative practice during their APPEs. Developing practice sites to increase the opportunities for students to practice collaboratively is key. Further education of and emphasis by preceptors relative to the IPE competencies is desired.



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