Hypertension, antihypertensive medications, and risk of incident primary hyperparathyroidism.

Document Type


Publication Date




Journal Title

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

MeSH Headings

Adult, Antihypertensive Agents, Female, Furosemide, Humans, Hyperparathyroidism, Primary, Hypertension, Incidence, Longitudinal Studies, Middle Aged, Nurses, Risk Factors, United States


CONTEXT: Hypertension is associated with higher PTH levels, and specific antihypertensive medications may modulate PTH. Whether hypertension or the use of specific antihypertensive medications influences the risk of developing incident primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPTH) is not known.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a history of hypertension and the use of specific antihypertensive medications determine the risk for developing P-HPTH in a large prospective study.

DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: A longitudinal prospective cohort of female nurses in the Nurses' Health Study I (n = 75 600), who did not have P-HPTH at baseline and completed a questionnaire assessment of lifetime history of P-HPTH were followed from 1986 to 2008. Most participants were white and postmenopausal.

SETTING: The study was a nationwide cohort study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident P-HPTH was assessed initially via questionnaire and then was confirmed by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounders.

RESULTS: We documented 347 incident cases of P-HPTH during 1 719 416 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) for incident P-HPTH associated with hypertension was 1.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-2.26), and the multivariate-adjusted RR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.10-1.91). Among participants with a history of hypertension, the use of furosemide, when compared with the use of other antihypertensive medications, was associated with increased risk for developing P-HPTH; age-adjusted RR for incident P-HPTH was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.15-2.79) and multivariate-adjusted RR was 1.71 (95% CI, 1.08-2.71).

CONCLUSIONS: In a large longitudinal prospective cohort study of mostly older white women, a history of hypertension and use of furosemide were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing P-HPTH.



First Page


Last Page