Prophylactic antibiotics are associated with a lower incidence of pneumonia in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management.

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Pharmacy, Critical Care

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Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Body Temperature, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Europe, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Heart Arrest, Humans, Hypothermia, Induced, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Pneumonia, Registries, Retrospective Studies, United States


INTRODUCTION: Prophylactic antibiotics (PRO) reduce the incidence of early-onset pneumonia in comatose patients with structural brain injury, but have not been examined in cardiac arrest survivors undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM). We investigated the effect of PRO on the development of pneumonia in that population.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing patients treated with PRO to those not receiving PRO (no-PRO) using Northern Hypothermia Network registry data. Cardiac arrest survivors ≥ 18 years of age with a GCS°C were enrolled in the registry. Differences were analyzed in univariate analyses and with logistic regression models to evaluate independent associations of clinical factors with incidence of pneumonia and good functional outcome.

RESULTS: 416 of 1240 patients (33.5%) received PRO. Groups were similar in age, gender, arrest location, initial rhythm, and time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation. PRO patients had less pneumonia (12.6% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.001) and less sepsis (1.2 vs. 5.7%, p < 0.001) compared to no-PRO patients. ICU length of stay (98 vs. 100 h, p = 0.2) and incidence of a good functional outcome (41.1 vs. 36.6%, p = 0.19) were similar between groups. Backwards stepwise logistic regression demonstrated PRO were independently associated with a lower incidence of pneumonia (OR 0.09, 95% 0.06-0.14, p < 0.001) and a similar incidence of good functional outcome.

CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic antibiotics were associated with a reduced incidence of pneumonia but a similar rate of good functional outcome.



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