Document Type


Publication Date



Anesthesiology & Pain Management, Medical Education, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation

MeSH Headings

Pain, Postoperative



• Intermediate and long acting opioids are given intraoperatively to reduce pain during emergence from anesthesia.

• Recent evidence suggests that intraoperative opioids have inconsistent effects on nociception and pain in the immediate postoperative period.

• Multiple potent, short-acting opioids such as remifentanil, sufentanil and fentanyl have been shown to produce dose-related increases in pain scores and opioid consumption in the immediate postoperative recovery period.

• Intraoperative doses of longer acting opioids such as morphine and methadone6 have been shown to reduce pain scores and narcotic requirements in the immediate postoperative period.

• Hydromorphone is an intermediate duration narcotic which is commonly used intraoperatively but has not been studied for its potential to reduce pain in the immediate postoperative period.


Lambrew Research Retreat



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