Determinants of Prostate Specific Antigen Screening among Black Men in the United States in the Contemporary Era.
PURPOSE: Although black men represent a high risk population for prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer, recommendations in black men are unclear. To our knowledge the resultant effect of conflicting recommendations and disparities in access to care on prostate specific antigen screening in black men is unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the rate of self-reported prostate specific antigen screening in black men relative to that in nonHispanic white men. The BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System) 2012 data set was used to identify asymptomatic men 40 to 99 years old who reported undergoing prostate specific antigen screening in the last 12 months. Age, education, income, residence location, marital status, health insurance, regular access to a health care provider and a health care provider recommendation to undergo screening were extracted. Subgroup analyses by race and age were performed using complex samples logistic regression models to assess the odds of undergoing prostate specific antigen screening.
RESULTS: In 2012 there were 122,309 survey respondents (weighted estimate 54.5 million) in the study population, of whom 29% of black and 32% of nonHispanic white men reported undergoing prostate specific antigen screening. Younger black males had higher rates and odds of screening than nonHispanic white men of a similar age (ages 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years OR 1.66, 1.58 and 1.36, respectively). Among black men only a higher education level (graduates vs nongraduates OR 2.12), regular access to a health care provider (OR 2.05) and a health care provider recommendation for screening (OR 8.43) were independently associated with prostate specific antigen screening.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite long-standing disparities in health care access black males 45 to 60 years old have a higher rate and probability of prostate specific antigen screening than nonHispanic white men. Among black men educational attainment had a more pronounced association. In contrast the association with health care provider recommendations was less pronounced relative to that in nonHispanic white men. Future research may shed more light on the gamut of factors that influence the decision making process for prostate specific antigen testing.