The case of the wandering kidney.
Case reports in urology
Nephroptosis is a controversial phenomenon well described in the literature. In this case report, we present a patient whose right kidney had "wandered" from its normal anatomic position in the retroperitoneum anteriorly and was in a fixed position anterior to the liver secondary to hydronephrosis. As opposed to the suspected mechanism of nephroptosis, we offer a hydraulic theory as to the origin of the energy required to cause this translocation. The work required to move the patient's kidney was generated by her cardiac output.
Sobel, David W and Jumper, Brian M, "The case of the wandering kidney." (2013). Maine Medical Center. 81.