A systematic review of micronutrient deficiencies in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

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Inflammatory bowel diseases


Background This systematic review critically analyzes the current research on micronutrient deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and synthesizes these data to provide evidence-based guidelines for nutritional surveillance in this population. Methods We searched 5 databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library) for studies evaluating micronutrients in patients with IBD using the following inclusion criteria: 1) original research, 2) published 1996 or later; 3) published in English; 4) human subjects; and 5) containing pediatric data. Studies were reviewed and included based on the strength of research methods. Data on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in pediatric patients with IBD and risk factors for micronutrient deficiency in these patients were extracted from included studies and compared and discussed in preparation of the proposed guidelines and manuscript. Results A total of 39 studies were included in the final review. The data presented in these studies show that iron deficiency and vitamin D deficiency are common in pediatric patients with IBD. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency are rare. Zinc deficiency, while not common, occurs at a higher rate in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy controls. There was limited data on vitamins A, E, and C, and selenium, but deficiency of these micronutrients seems rare. Conclusions We recommend annual surveillance of iron and vitamin D in pediatric patients with IBD regardless of disease activity or phenotype. Zinc should be monitored annually in patients with Crohn's disease. There is insufficient evidence to support routine screening for other micronutrient deficiencies.

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