Ceftriaxone to PRevent pneumOnia and inflammaTion aftEr Cardiac arresT (PROTECT): study protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Pharmacy, Neurology, MMCRI, Maine Medical Center Neuroscience Institute, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Critical Care
Ceftriaxone (adverse effects); Double-Blind Method; Humans; Inflammation; Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (diagnosis, drug therapy); Pneumonia; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Treatment Outcome
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the most common infection after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring in up to 65% of patients who remain comatose after return of spontaneous circulation. Preventing infection after OHCA may (1) reduce exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics, (2) prevent hemodynamic derangements due to local and systemic inflammation, and (3) prevent infection-associated morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The ceftriaxone to PRevent pneumOnia and inflammaTion aftEr Cardiac arrest (PROTECT) trial is a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-center, quadruple-blind (patient, treatment team, research team, outcome assessors), non-commercial, superiority trial to be conducted at Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine, USA. Ceftriaxone 2 g intravenously every 12 h for 3 days will be compared with matching placebo. The primary efficacy outcome is incidence of early-onset pneumonia occurring < 4 days after mechanical ventilation initiation. Concurrently, T cell-mediated inflammation bacterial resistomes will be examined. Safety outcomes include incidence of type-one immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions, gallbladder injury, and Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea. The trial will enroll 120 subjects over approximately 3 to 4 years. DISCUSSION: The PROTECT trial is novel in its (1) inclusion of OHCA survivors regardless of initial heart rhythm, (2) use of a low-risk antibiotic available in the USA that has not previously been tested after OHCA, (3) inclusion of anti-inflammatory effects of ceftriaxone as a novel mechanism for improved clinical outcomes, and (4) complete metagenomic assessment of bacterial resistomes pre- and post-ceftriaxone prophylaxis. The long-term goal is to develop a definitive phase III trial powered for mortality or functional outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04999592 . Registered on August 10, 2021.
Gagnon DJ, Ryzhov SV, May MA, et al. Ceftriaxone to PRevent pneumOnia and inflammaTion aftEr Cardiac arresT (PROTECT): study protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Trials. 2022;23(1):197. Published 2022 Mar 4. doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06127-w