Introduction: To determine whether the Electronic Pre-participation Physical Examination (EPPE), a proprietary and frequently used tool, is an effective method for depression and anxiety screening in the collegiate athlete population as compared to the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4).
Methods: College athletes at a Division III university completed PHQ-4 questionnaires and a proprietary EPPE. Positive reponse rates to depression and/or anxiety for both questionnaires were collected and analyzed with a kappa (κ) statistic.
Results: Among 420 students, we found that 9 (2%) reported depression and/or anxiety via the EPPE. Of the 26 students (6%) who answered positively on the PHQ-4, we found that 2 reported depression and/or anxiety on the EPPE. Of the 9 students who reported a history of depression and/or anxiety on the EPPE, we found that 2 scored positively on the PHQ-4. Agreement between the 2 methods was poor (κ = 0.08).
Discussion: Reporting depression or anxiety among collegiate athletes with the EPPE screening question related to the nervous system is low compared to the PHQ-4.
Conclusions: Colleges should consider adding additional depression and anxiety screening tools during the pre-participation exam to ensure they identify and treat at-risk student athletes.
Isacke, Adriana C. DO; Haskins, Amy PhD; Holt, Christina MD, MSc; and Dexter, Williams MD, FACSM
"Effectiveness of Two Frequently Used Screening Tools in Identifying Depression and Anxiety in Collegiate Athletes,"
Journal of Maine Medical Center: Vol. 3
, Article 3.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.46804/2641-2225.1068
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