Assessing volume status and fluid responsiveness in the emergency department.
Clin Exp Emerg Med
Resuscitation with intravenous fluid can restore intravascular volume and improve stroke volume. However, in unstable patients, approximately 50% of fluid boluses fail to improve cardiac output as intended. Increasing evidence suggests that excess fluid may worsen patient outcomes. Clinical examination and vital signs are unreliable predictors of the response to a fluid challenge. We review the importance of fluid management in the critically ill, methods of evaluating volume status, and tools to predict fluid responsiveness.
Mackenzie, David C and Noble, Vicki E, "Assessing volume status and fluid responsiveness in the emergency department." (2014). Maine Medical Center. 23.